While many things have changed dramatically in the last two thousand years, there are some things that remain undeniably the same. For instance the Hippocrates idiom that “it is more important to know what sort of person has a disease than to know what sort of disease a person has” has not only been shown to still be relevant, but has proven to be truer now than it ever was in the times of Ancient Greece. By the same token, we have continued to determine, through trial and clinical observation, that illness can be genetic, epigenetic, metabolic, physiological, infectious and/or caused by a deficiency. No matter what the cause, it is agreed that all can be very heavily influenced by the patient in question’s age, gender, lifestyle, and vitally, the microbiome. 1,2
We know the gastrointestinal tract is a complex system, responsible for digestion, immunity, absorption of essential nutrients, vitamins and minerals, homeostatic control of energy balance and detoxification. It stands to reason that with such a myriad of key and complex functions you cannot achieve maximum health without optimising the functions and environment of the gut.2
The alimentary canal is home to what is now believed to be thousands of bacterial strains, which give us tens of trillions of bacteria, producing hundreds of thousands of metabolites, all with specific functions.
These bacteria can be generally classified into parasitic, opportunistic parasites and beneficial probiotics.
Gut microbiota and their hosts have a well-established and evolved symbiosis. It has long been understood that the bacteria benefit the host’s metabolism by production of metabolites and chemical messengers and their combination is commonly referred to as a ‘super organism’. But what has been less researched and understood, is the relationship that these bacterial communities have on each other and other microbiota such as yeasts and fungi, and how these syntrophic interactions are thought to be essential in achieving optimal health. ScobioticsTM is a term trade marked by Bioclinic Naturals to mean a more complex probiotic. They are syntrophic blends of bacteria, fungi, blue-green algae and nutrients that promote beneficial bacteria in both the small and large intestines and support mucosal membrane health and integrity. The fact that they include beneficial bacteria as well as other beneficial organisms such as yeasts, means that they take into account the complexity of the microbiome or rather, multi biome. In fact, Scobiotics™, may be the key to understanding more about the GI tract and how to achieve homeostasis.3
ScobioticsTM have many varied uses, as ultimately the combination of organisms play a role in nearly every bodily function. Dysbiosis can manifest in multiple symptoms of intestinal permeability, hayfever, eczema and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterised by symptoms of abdominal pain and distention, with either alternating or predominant constipation and diarrhoea patterns. Current treatment of IBS is through attempting to determine the root cause, as well as restoration of normal microbiomes and gastrointestinal functions.4-8
Scobiotics’TM microbiota consist of probiotics and yeasts and can play an important role in this treatment in a number of ways. They support healthy gastrointestinal motility, intestinal epithelial permeability and immunity and attenuate gastrointestinal pain and inflammation.9,10,11 The endogenous chemicals promoted by these formulas aid as microbiota precursors and substrates in energy production and reduction of inflammation and the fungi support prebiotics and improved immunity.
The effect of this combination may be that they work synergistically to target underlying imbalances that cause disordered small intestinal function and gastrointestinal disturbances.12-22
Intestinal Permeability (Leaky Gut)
Leaky gut is considered a condition of the intestinal barrier, which when weakened, allows the translocation of bacteria and toxics through the intestinal wall. Many factors can alter intestinal permeability such as gut microbiota modifications, mucus layer alterations and epithelial damage. A significant range of gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms and conditions are associated with impaired intestinal permeability, including many digestive symptoms, reduced nutrient absorption, impaired immunity, food hypersensitivities and reduced capacity for physical performance.23-25
ScobioticsTM microbiota (probiotics and yeasts) can play an important role in this treatment in a number of ways. These include enhancing intestinal barrier integrity and function by inhibiting permeability, regulating mucous composition, increasing IgA production and influencing tight junction expression while symbiotically influencing the correct microbiome composition. The fungi prebiotics also exhibit a broad range of mechanisms that support gastrointestinal barrier integrity and function such as immune modulation. Select fungi also reduce gut inflammation reverting the gut to a homeostatic environment.7,9, 11-20,26
The endogenous chemicals encouraged by the other ingredients in the formula aid as sources of energy for the microbiota, for example glutamine is a microbial energy source and also influences tight junction expression, reduces inflammation while supporting the survival of healthy probiotics. Spirulina supports the microbiome and the gut with nutrients and is a potent antioxidant.27-32
The overarching effect of the IP Restore ScobioticTM is to return the gut to its healthy resting state by limiting permeability and inflammation, and supporting the microbiome which in turn, will limit further permeability.
Hayfever and Eczema
Allergic rhinitis or ‘hayfever’ is a perennial or seasonal condition clinically presenting with environmental, allergen- induced, inflammation of the nasal cavity and mucosa and Th-2 skewed hyperresponsiveness. This is caused by an imbalanced antigen-immune response, a process that involves crosstalk between host systems and resident microbiota. Eczema is a common, chronic, remitting/ relapsing, inflammatory cutaneous condition. It clinically presents with pruritis, erythema and lesions, An imbalanced antigen-immune response also underlies the onset and progression of eczema, with defective barrier integrity and functionality at the skin or gastrointestinal, mucosal level, providing a route for organisms to influence the immune system. In both allergic rhinitis and eczema, alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiome is suggested to play a key role in disease susceptibility, induction, progression and severity. This is due to the significant influence of the microbiota on peripheral and central, host immune regulation and responsiveness, as well as on intestinal barrier integrity and function.33-39
Microbiota (probiotics and yeasts) protect intestinal barrier function resulting in lowering inflammation and The fungi support the microbiota as prebiotics and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production precursors, they have immunomodulating capability and are nutrient rich. Which support the host and the microbiome. The endogenous chemicals increased by the formula aid as precursors of SCFA’s, anti-inflammatory and a source of nutrients depleted by an allergic response. The predominant effect of the AllergEase ScobioitcTM is to address the onset and severity of clinical symptoms and limit the inflammation and the biochemical and cutaneous effects of an allergic response.7,9, 11-20,26
The above conditions are the results of large insults to the gastrointestinal tract and so the response to revert dysbiosis and attempt homeostasis are very focussed on identifying the root cause by alleviating the primary and secondary responses, reducing inflammation and repopulating the gut. Once “repaired” (following treatment of conditions associated with structural and functional gastrointestinal dysfunction.), it is important to endeavour to maintain that gut. This can be done by supporting the adherence of non-colonising bacteria, repopulating the environment with the correct probiotics and maintaining a reduced level of inflammation and intestinal permeabilty.
A general ScobioitcTM promotes the repair and restoration of a healthy and balanced gastrointestinal system and can also be utilised in everyday health as well as for restoration of healthy bacterial balance following antibiotic use.
ScobioticsTM microbiota (probiotics and yeasts) need to be as diverse and as broad-range as possible, containing large intestinal and small intestinal bacteria to aid and influence many processes in the colon. These processes include sustaining gastrointestinal barrier integrity and functionality, metabolism and fermentation of carbohydrate components (producing energy and short-chain fatty acids) and promoting immune homeostasis. The prebiotics in the formulas are targeted towards specific large intestine bacteria to support their exponential growth. They are non-digestible dietary compounds that modulate gastrointestinal microbiome composition and activity by significantly stimulating the growth and activity of beneficial bacteria. They therefore protect, maintain and improve gastrointestinal health. The herbs and other nutrients in the formulas promote endogenous chemicals or metabolites that act as sources of energy for the microbiota, support the microbiome to reduce the level of pathogens and are sources of vitamins for the host and the microbiome. They also aid in colonisation, adherence and reducing cell doubling time. .7,9, 11-20,26
The ingredients in the specialised ScobioticsTM in the range support the relief of symptoms and responses of a dyfunctional gut by working synergistically, providing potent combinations in effective formulas. On the other hand, the general ScobioticTM’s purpose is to aid in the maintenance of an optimal gut and its environment, thus priming it to support the prevention of future insults.
*References available on request